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1969From the Academy Audio Archive

About this poet

Born on January 7, 1919, in Oakland, California, Robert Duncan began writing poetry as a teenager in Bakersfield, when a high school teacher encouraged his creative endeavors. In 1938, after two years at University of California, Berkeley, Duncan moved to New York and became involved in the downtown literary coterie that had sprung up around Anaïs Nin.

While in New York, Duncan took an active role in emerging arts movements, following the works of the Abstract Expressionists, the development of Pablo Picasso's brand of modernism, and the emergence of an American Surrealism as seen in the works of his acquaintances Roberto Matta and Hans Hoffman. During this time, Duncan launched the Experimental Review with Sanders Russell; Duncan and Russell published the work of Henry Miller, Anaïs Nin, Kenneth Patchen, Lawrence Durrell, and other writers in their circle.

Duncan returned to Berkeley in 1946. The poetry scene there was developing into what would soon be called the San Francisco Renaissance: Jack Spicer and Robin Blaser were together devising their concept of a "serial form" for poems linked by repeating themes, images, and phrases, while Kenneth Rexroth was holding his literary and anarchist meetings, which Duncan, Blaser, and a host of others attended.

In 1947 Duncan met Charles Olson, and over the years that followed the two developed a relationship rooted in their literary interests. Olson introduced Duncan to Robert Creeley and, in 1956, invited Duncan to teach at Black Mountain College. During his time at Black Mountain Duncan composed most of the poems in his first mature collection of poetry, The Opening of the Field. Indeed, Olson's theory of "projective verse" and "open forms," which propose a poetry shaped by the poet's "breath" rather than by the traditional rules of meter and rhyme, seem to have directly influenced Duncan's "grand collage" concept of verse. Duncan, in effect, took Olson's idea of "breath" one step further, presenting the poem as a "compositional field" to which the poet might bring whatever he or she pleases.

Duncan's rather spiritual upbringing shaped the scope of the poet's work. After his biological mother died giving birth to him, Duncan was adopted by a couple who practiced theosophy, an occult religion popularized in the late nineteenth century by a controversial figure who called herself Madame Blavatsky (W. B. Yeats was a follower of theosophy, in its early stages). Theosophy, which promotes belief in reincarnation and an "essential oneness" of spirit, draws from world religions and philosophy. Duncan's adoptive parents, spiritual-seekers who seriously pursued their interests in enlightenment, selected Robert based on the configuration of his astrological chart. Duncan took his parents' beliefs quite seriously; the occult, in particular, informed both his poetry and theories of poetics throughout his life.

Despite his affiliation with several major movements in American poetry of the fifties and sixties, Duncan forged a style uniquely his own. Utilizing archaic diction and spelling, and complex repetition of phrase, Duncan creates a poetic space both ethereal and obsessive. Throughout his life Duncan became increasingly interested in the writing process, striving to write poems of a purely organic form. His most famous poem, the central piece of The Opening of the Field, provides a commentary on Duncan's work as a whole, and serves as a precursor for his work to come:

OFTEN I AM PERMITTED TO RETURN TO A MEADOW as if it were a scene made-up by the mind, that is not mine, but is a made place, that is mine, it is so near to the heart, an eternal pasture folded in all thought so that there is a hall therein that is a made place, created by light wherefrom the shadows that are forms fall.

Duncan died on February 3, 1988.

A Selected Bibliography


Early Poems (1939)
Heavenly City Earthly City (1947)
Poems (1949)
A Book of Resemblances (1950)
Medieval Scenes (1950)
Fragments of a Disordered Devotion (1952)
Letters (1953)
Selected Poems (1959)
The Opening of the Field (1960)
As Testimony: The Poem (1964)
Roots and Branches (1964)
Medea at Kolchis: The Maiden Head (1965)
A Book of Resemblances Poems (1966)
Of the War: Passages (1966)
Bending the Bow (1968)
Derivations: Selected Poems (1968)
Names of People (1968)
Play Time Pseudo Stein (1969)
65 Drawings, A Selection . . . from One Drawing Book (1970)
Poetic Disturbances (1970)
A Prospectus for . . . Ground Work (1971)
Caesar's Gate Poems (1972)
Poems from the Margins of Thom Gunn's Moly (1972)
A Seventeenth Century Suite (1973)
An Ode and Arcadia (1974)
Dante (1974)
Selected Poems (1977)
Medieval Scenes (1978)
Ground Work: Before the War (1984)
Ground Work II: In the Dark (1987)
Selected Poems (1993)


A Great Admiration: H. D./Robert Duncan Correspondence (1992)
A Selected Prose (1995)
Writing A Composition Book Stein Imitations (1964)


Faust Foutu: An Entertainment in Four Parts (1959)


Fictive Certainties: Essays (1979)


The Letters of Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov (2003)

My Mother Would Be a Falconress

My mother would be a falconress,
And I, her gay falcon treading her wrist,
would fly to bring back
from the blue of the sky to her, bleeding, a prize, 
where I dream in my little hood with many bells 
jangling when I'd turn my head.

My mother would be a falconress, 
and she sends me as far as her will goes. 
She lets me ride to the end of her curb 
where I fall back in anguish.
I dread that she will cast me away, 
for I fall, I mis-take, I fail in her mission.

She would bring down the little birds. 
And I would bring down the little birds. 
When will she let me bring down the little birds, 
pierced from their flight with their necks broken, 
their heads like flowers limp from the stem?

I tread my mother's wrist and would draw blood.
Behind the little hood my eyes are hooded.
I have gone back into my hooded silence,
talking to myself and dropping off to sleep.

For she has muffled my dreams in the hood she has made me, 
sewn round with bells, jangling when I move.
She rides with her little falcon upon her wrist. 
She uses a barb that brings me to cower. 
She sends me abroad to try my wings 
and I come back to her. I would bring down 
the little birds to her
I may not tear into, I must bring back perfectly.

I tear at her wrist with my beak to draw blood, 
and her eye holds me, anguisht, terrifying. 
She draws a limit to my flight.
Never beyond my sight, she says.
She trains me to fetch and to limit myself in fetching.
She rewards me with meat for my dinner.
But I must never eat what she sends me to bring her.

Yet it would have been beautiful, if she would have carried me, 
always, in a little hood with the bells ringing,
at her wrist, and her riding 
to the great falcon hunt, and me
flying up to the curb of my heart from her heart 
to bring down the skylark from the blue to her feet, 
straining, and then released for the flight.

My mother would be a falconress, 
and I her gerfalcon raised at her will, 
from her wrist sent flying, as if I were her own 
pride, as if her pride
knew no limits, as if her mind 
sought in me flight beyond the horizon.

Ah, but high, high in the air I flew. 
And far, far beyond the curb of her will, 
were the blue hills where the falcons nest. 
And then I saw west to the dying sun--
it seemd my human soul went down in flames.

I tore at her wrist, at the hold she had for me,
until the blood ran hot and I heard her cry out,
far, far beyond the curb of her will

to horizons of stars beyond the ringing hills of the world where
   the falcons nest
I saw, and I tore at her wrist with my savage beak.
I flew, as if sight flew from the anguish in her eye beyond her sight,
sent from my striking loose, from the cruel strike at her wrist,
striking out from the blood to be free of her.

My mother would be a falconress,
and even now, years after this,
when the wounds I left her had surely heald,
and the woman is dead,
her fierce eyes closed, and if her heart 
were broken, it is stilld

I would be a falcon and go free.
I tread her wrist and wear the hood,
talking to myself, and would draw blood.

From Bending the Bow, published by New Directions, 1968. Copyright © 1968 by Robert Duncan. Reprinted with permission.

From Bending the Bow, published by New Directions, 1968. Copyright © 1968 by Robert Duncan. Reprinted with permission.

Robert Duncan

Robert Duncan

Born on January 7, 1919, in Oakland, California, Robert Duncan took an active role in emerging arts movements and communitites at the time—including Abstract Expressionism, Surrealism, the San Francisco Renaissance and Black Mountain College—and developed a style uniquely his own.

by this poet



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I do not know more than the Sea tells me,
told me long ago, or I overheard Her
     telling distant roar upon the sands,
waves of meaning in the cradle of whose
     sounding and resounding power I

                              Manchild,     She sang

--or was it

Was he then Adam of the Burning Way? 
hid away in the heat like wrath 
        conceald in Love’s face, 
or the seed, Eris in Eros, 
        key and lock 
of what I was?        I could not speak 
        the releasing 
word.        For into a dark 
        matter he came 
and askt me to say what 
        I could