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About this poet

Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet and critic, was born on April 5, 1837, in London. His family, aristocratic on both sides, divided their time between family estates in Northumberland and the Isle of Wight. The dramatic landscapes of these two homes would later influence his poetry.

He attended Eton beginning in 1849, and in 1856 he matriculated at Oxford University as a student in Balliol College. There, he became friends with the Pre-Raphaelite painters and joined an undergraduate group of intellectuals who called themselves the “Old Mortality.” While he began writing both poetry and criticism at Oxford, he left without a degree in 1859 and moved to London.

The literary social life that Swinburne began at Oxford extended to his life in London, where he frequented parties and associated with many cultural figures. He published his first book, a collection of two dramas titled The Queen-Mother and Rosamond (B. M. Pickering, 1860). His two subsequent dramas, Atlanta in Calydon (Edward Moxon, 1865) and Chastelard (E. P. Dutton, 1866), were received more positively in his literary spheres, but it was not until 1866 that his career catapulted with the publication of his first poetry collection.

Poems and Ballads (Edward Moxon, 1866) had a notable impact on Victorian poetry with its groundbreaking portrayal of sexuality and taboo. Swinburne is known for the sensation that this book produced in the literary community, but also for the range of his subsequent poetry collections. He published several more books of poetry, including the political Songs Before Sunrise (F. S. Ellis, 1871) and the French-influenced Poems and Ballads, Second Series (Chatto and Windus, 1878).

He was also the author of an influential body of literary criticism, of which T. S. Eliot wrote, “whatever our opinion of Swinburne’s verse, the notes upon poets by a poet of Swinburne’s dimensions must be read with attention and respect.”

After his health deteriorated in the 1870s, he moved to Putney to live with his close friend Theodore Watts-Dunton. While he continued to write, it is argued that the quality of his work declined in this later period. He died in London on April 10, 1909.

Selected Bibliography

Poems and Ballads, Second Series (Chatto and Windus, 1878)
Songs Before Sunrise (F. S. Ellis, 1871)
Poems and Ballads (Edward Moxon, 1866)
Chastelard (E. P. Dutton, 1865),
Atlanta in Calydon (Edward Moxon, 1865)
The Queen-Mother and Rosamond (B. M. Pickering, 1860)


There were four apples on the bough,
Half gold half red, that one might know
The blood was ripe inside the core;
The colour of the leaves was more
Like stems of yellow corn that grow
Through all the gold June meadow’s floor.

The warm smell of the fruit was good
To feed on, and the split green wood,
With all its bearded lips and stains
Of mosses in the cloven veins,
Most pleasant, if one lay or stood
In sunshine or in happy rains.

There were four apples on the tree,
Red stained through gold, that all might see
The sun went warm from core to rind;
The green leaves made the summer blind
In that soft place they kept for me
With golden apples shut behind.

The leaves caught gold across the sun,
And where the bluest air begun,
Thirsted for song to help the heat;
As I to feel my lady’s feet
Draw close before the day were done;
Both lips grew dry with dreams of it.

In the mute August afternoon
They trembled to some undertune
Of music in the silver air;
Great pleasure was it to be there
Till green turned duskier and the moon
Coloured the corn-sheaves like gold hair.

That August time it was delight
To watch the red moons wane to white
’Twixt grey seamed stems of apple-trees;
A sense of heavy harmonies
Grew on the growth of patient night,
More sweet than shapen music is.

But some three hours before the moon
The air, still eager from the noon,
Flagged after heat, not wholly dead;
Against the stem I leant my head;
The colour soothed me like a tune,
Green leaves all round the gold and red.

I lay there till the warm smell grew
More sharp, when flecks of yellow dew
Between the round ripe leaves had blurred
The rind with stain and wet; I heard
A wind that blew and breathed and blew,
Too weak to alter its one word.

The wet leaves next the gentle fruit
Felt smoother, and the brown tree-root
Felt the mould warmer: I too felt
(As water feels the slow gold melt
Right through it when the day burns mute)
The peace of time wherein love dwelt.

There were four apples on the tree,
Gold stained on red that all might see
The sweet blood filled them to the core:
The colour of her hair is more
Like stems of fair faint gold, that be
Mown from the harvest’s middle floor.

This poem is in the public domain.

This poem is in the public domain.

Algernon Charles Swinburne

Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet and critic, was born on April 5, 1837, in London.

by this poet

Before our lives divide for ever, 
      While time is with us and hands are free, 
(Time, swift to fasten and swift to sever 
      Hand from hand, as we stand by the sea) 
I will say no word that a man might say 
Whose whole life's love goes down in a day; 
For this could never have been; and never,
From the French of the Vidame de Chartres

When the fields catch flower
   And the underwood is green,
And from bower unto bower
   The songs of the birds begin,
   I sing with sighing between.
When I laugh and sing,
   I am heavy at heart for my sin;


I hid my heart in a nest of roses,
   Out of the sun’s way, hidden apart;
In a softer bed than the soft white snow’s is,
   Under the roses I hid my heart.
   Why would it sleep not? why should it start,
When never a leaf of the rose-tree stirred?
   What made sleep flutter his wings