A Brief Guide to Imagism
PostedMay 16, 2004
In a Station of the Metro
The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.
The imagist movement included English and American poets in the early twentieth century who wrote free verse and were devoted to "clarity of expression through the use of precise visual images." A strand of modernism, imagism was officially launched in 1912 when Ezra Pound read and marked up a poem by Hilda Doolittle, signed it "H. D. Imagiste," and sent it to Harriet Monroe at Poetry magazine.
The movement sprang from ideas developed by T. E. Hulme, who—as early as 1908—was proposing to the Poets' Club in London a poetry based on absolutely accurate presentation of its subject with no excess verbiage. The first tenet of the imagist manifesto was "To use the language of common speech, but to employ always the exact word, not the nearly-exact, nor the merely decorative word."
Imagism was a reaction against the flabby abstract language and "careless thinking" of Georgian romanticism. Imagist poetry aimed to replace muddy abstractions with exactness of observed detail, apt metaphors, and economy of language. For example, Pound's "In a Station of the Metro" started from a glimpse of beautiful faces in a dark subway and elevated that perception into a crisp vision by finding an intensified equivalent image. The metaphor provokes a sharp, intuitive discovery in order to get at the essence of life.
Pound's definition of the image was "that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time." Pound defined the tenets of imagist poetry as:
I. Direct treatment of the "thing," whether subjective or objective.
II. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation.
III. As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome.
In 1914, Des Imagistes: An Anthology (A. and C. Boni), a collection assembled and edited by Pound, was published; it collected work by William Carlos Williams, Richard Aldington, James Joyce, and H. D. Other imagists included F. S. Flint, D. H. Lawrence, and John Gould Fletcher. By the time the anthology appeared, Amy Lowell had effectively appropriated imagism and was seen as the movement's leader. Three years later, even Lowell thought the movement had run its course. Pound by then was claiming that he invented imagism to launch H. D.’s career. Though imagism as a movement was over by 1917, the ideas about poetry embedded in the imagist doctrine profoundly influenced free verse poets throughout the twentieth century.