Born Asa Bundy Sheffey in 1913, Robert Hayden was raised in the poor
neighborhood in Detroit called Paradise Valley. He had an emotionally tumultuous childhood and was
shuttled between the home of his parents and that of a foster family, who lived
next door. Because of impaired vision, he was unable to participate in sports,
but was able to spend his time reading. In 1932, he graduated from high school
and, with the help of a scholarship, attended Detroit City College (later Wayne
Hayden published his first book of poems, Heart-Shape in the Dust, in
1940, at the age of 27. He enrolled in a graduate English Literature program at the University of
Michigan where he studied with W. H.
Auden. Auden became an influential critical guide in the development of
Hayden's writing. Hayden admired the work of
Edna St. Vincent Millay, Elinor Wiley,
Carl Sandburg, and
Hart Crane, as well as the poets of
the Harlem Renaissance, Langston
Hughes, Countee Cullen, and
Jean Toomer. He had an interest in
African-American history and explored his concerns about race in his writing.
Hayden's poetry gained international recognition in the 1960s and he was
awarded the grand prize for poetry at the First World Festival of Negro Arts in
Dakar, Senegal, in 1966 for his book Ballad of Remembrance.
Explaining the trajectory of Hayden's career, the poet William Meredith wrote: "Hayden declared himself, at considerable cost in popularity, an American poet rather than a black poet, when for a time there was posited an unreconcilable difference between the two roles. There is scarcely a line of his which is not identifiable as an experience of black America, but he would not relinquish the title of American writer for any narrower identity."
In 1975, Hayden received the Academy of American Poets Fellowship, and in 1976, he
became the first black American to be appointed as Consultant in Poetry to the
Library of Congress (later called the Poet Laureate). He died in Ann Arbor,
Michigan, in 1980.