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FURTHER READING
Related Prose
A Brief Guide to the Black Arts Movement
Other Black Art Poets
Amiri Baraka
Etheridge Knight
Gwendolyn Brooks
Haki Madhubuti
Henry Dumas
Ishmael Reed
Jayne Cortez
Mari Evans
Nikki Giovanni
Quincy Troupe
Sonia Sanchez
External Links
Ntozake Shange
Biography and information on For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow Is Enuf.
Ntozake Shange: Portrait of a Literary Feminist
PDF:Requires Adobe Acrobat to download full text. Interview with Edward K. Brown II.
Reading Group Guide: Liliane
Discussion questions for Shange's novel.
Two poems
"Blood Rhythms—Blood Currents—Black Blue N Stylin'" and "People of Watts".
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Ntozake Shange

Poet, performance artist, playwright, and novelist Ntozake Shange was born Paulette Williams on October 18, 1948, in Trenton, New Jersey. She earned a B.A. in American Studies from Barnard College in 1970, and then left New York to pursue graduate studies at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. It was during this time that she took the name "Ntozake" ("she who comes into her own things") "Shange" ("she who walks like a lion") from the Zulu dialect Xhosa. She received an M.A. in American Studies from USC in 1973.

Her many books of poetry include Ridin' the Moon in Texas: Word Paintings (St. Martin's Press, 1987); From Okra to Greens (Coffee House Press, 1984); A Daughter's Geography (St. Martinís Press, 1983); Three Pieces (1981), which won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize; Nappy Edges (1978); Natural Disasters and Other Festive Occasions (1977); and Melissa & Smith (1976).

Among her plays are Daddy Says (1989); Spell #7 (1985); From Okra to Greens/A Different Kinda Love Story (1983); A Photograph: Lovers-in-Motion (1981); and the renowned for colored girls who have considered suicide/when the rainbow is enuf (1977), which won an Obie Award and received Tony, Grammy, and Emmy Award nominations. The play, or "choreopoem", became an instant classic. Performed by an ensemble of seven African-American women, the play is comprised of monologues, movement, and poems that together describe the pain and struggle women face because of racism and sexism.

The theatre critic Clive Barnes wrote about the play, "This is true folk poetry. It springs from the earth with the voice of people talking with the peculiarly precise clumsiness of life. It is the gaucheness of love. It is the jaggedness of actuality" (The New York Times, June 2, 1976).

About her writing, the poet Ishmael Reed said, "No contemporary writer has Ms. Shangeís uncanny gift for immersing herself within the situations and points-of-view of so many different types of women."

She is also the author of multiple childrenís books and prose works, including Some Sing, Some Cry (St. Martinís Press, 2010), If I Can Cook You Know God Can (1998), See No Evil: Prefaces, Essays & Accounts, 1976-1983 (1984), Sassafrass, Cypress & Indigo: A Novel (1982), and The Black Book (1986, with Robert Mapplethorpe).

Among her numerous honors are fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and the Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund, and a Pushcart Prize. Shange lives in Brooklyn.

Poems by
Ntozake Shange

My Father Is a Retired Magician

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